Bosnia was a major issue in the Muslim World which saw it as an aggression of Christians against Muslims and proof of Western double standards on human rights. The Afghan Arab veterans formed a El-Mudzahidun regiment in August but hurt the Bosnian image internationally with "photographs of grinning Arab warriors brandishing the freshly severed heads of 'Christian Serbs'". According to Gilles Kepel as of , the only thing left of their presence are "a few naturalized Arab subjects married to Bosnian women. Several veterans of jihad in Afghanistan were important in the Armed Islamic Group of Algeria or GIA—one of two insurgent groups fighting the government in the Algerian Civil War after the army intervened to prevent the leading Islamist party from winning elections scheduled for January The group was committed to overthrowing the "impious" Algerian government and worked to prevent any compromise between them and the Islamist FIS party.
Though the "undisputed principal Islamist force" in Algeria in ,  by , militants were deserting "in droves", alienated by its execution of civilians and Islamists leaders and believing it to be infiltrated by government agents. Algeria was one of the few in the Arab world not to participate in the Arab Spring. In Egypt, "fundamentalists fighting the government in the s included "several hundred 'Afghan' guerrillas". Al-Istambouli established a base in Jalalabad , in eastern Afghanistan, during the war.
Egypt's institutions had more political strength and religious credibility than Algeria's, and hundreds rather than thousands were killed in the terror campaign before it was crushed in Violence in Egypt reached its peak in the November Luxor massacre of 60 people most of whom were tourists. In the mid- and lates, the Afghan Arabs, in the form of the Wahhabi -oriented Al-Qaeda , became more influential in Afghanistan helping and influencing the Taliban.
Several hundred Arab-Afghans participated in the and Taliban offensives in the north and helped the Taliban carry out the massacres of the Shia Hazaras there. At the same time the Taliban's ideology changed. Until the "Taliban's contact with the Arab-Afghans and their [the Taliban's] pan-Islamic ideology was non-existent. By and , al Qaeda felt comfortable enough in the sanctuary given them to issue a declaration of war against Americans and later a fatwa to kill Americans and their allies.
From being mere appendages of the Afghan jihad and the Cold War in the s they had taken centre stage for the Afghans, neighbouring countries and the west in the s. Following the attacks of September 11, , America invaded Afghanistan , deposing the Taliban, ending the heyday of the Afghan Arabs. Some Arab fighters have been held by Afghan tribesman for ransom paid by Americans. Perhaps the major contribution of the more serious Afghan Arab volunteers was humanitarian aid —- the setting up of hospitals around Peshawar and Quetta and providing funds for supply caravans to travel to the interior of the country.
Abdullah Anas, himself one of the most famous of these Afghan-Arabs fighters, said that "90 percent were teachers, cooks, accountants, doctors [over the border in Pakistan]. Marc Sageman , a Foreign Service Officer who was based in Islamabad from —, and worked closely with Afghanistan's Mujahideen, says. Contemporaneous accounts of the war do not even mention [the Afghan Arabs]. Many were not serious about the war. Very few were involved in actual fighting.
For most of the war, they were scattered among the Afghan groups associated with the four Afghan fundamentalist parties. One instance where the foreign volunteers did participate in the fighting is reported to have backfired disastrously, hurting the Afghan resistance by prolonging the war against the Afghan Marxist government following the Soviet withdrawal. The March battle for Jalalabad, was to be beginning of the collapse of the Afghan Communist government forces, with those forces began negotiation of surrender to the native Afghan mujahideen. Unfortunately, radical non-Afghan salafists became involved, executing some 60 surrendering Communists, cutting their corpses into small pieces, and sending the remains back to the besieged city in a truck with the message that this would be the fate awaiting the infidels.
Tens of thousand more foreign Muslim radicals came to study in the hundreds of new madrassas in Pakistan and along the Afghan border, that the Pakistan government funded. Eventually "more than , Muslim radicals were to have direct contact with Pakistan and Afghanistan and be influenced by the jihad.
The Mujahideen of Afghanistan were divided into several factions and the Afghan Arabs helped some factions much more than others. The faction led by Ahmad Shah Massoud , did not. Afghan Arabs have been described as strongly motivated by hopes for martyrdom. Rahimullah Yusufzai, the Peshawar bureau chief for the Pakistani daily News , remarked on his amazement that one camp of Arab Afghans pitched white tents on the front lines, where they were easy marks for Soviet bombers, then attacking the camp.
When he asked the Arabs "Why? We Want to die!
The United States spent several billion dollars aiding the Afghan resistance, some of which found its way to more radical jihadi groups. The Afghan Arabs are sometimes reputed to be a creation of the American government and the Central Intelligence Agency in particular. Bin Laden was, though, a product of a monumental miscalculation by western security agencies. Throughout the 80s he was armed by the CIA and funded by the Saudis to wage jihad against the Russian occupation of Afghanistan.
Al-Qaida, literally "the database", was originally the computer file of the thousands of mujahideen who were recruited and trained with help from the CIA to defeat the Russians. However the notion that the CIA had any contact with non-Afghan mujahideen and specifically bin Laden is disputed by a number of sources. There's no evidence of this. In fact, there are very few things that bin Laden, Ayman al-Zawahiri and the U. They all agree that they didn't have a relationship in the s. And they wouldn't have needed to.
Bin Laden had his own money, he was anti-American and he was operating secretly and independently. The real story here is the CIA didn't really have a clue about who this guy was until when they set up a unit to really start tracking him. It was always galling to the Americans, and I can understand their point of view, that although they paid the piper they could not call the tune. The CIA supported the mujahideen by spending the taxpayers' money, billions of dollars of it over the years, on buying arms, ammunition, and equipment.
It was their secret arms procurement branch that was kept busy. It was, however, a cardinal rule of Pakistan's policy that no Americans ever become involved with the distribution of funds or arms once they arrived in the country.
No Americans ever trained or had direct contact with the mujahideen, and no American official ever went inside Afghanistan. They thought it would end up with them being blamed, like in Guatemala. Cannistraro says that when he coordinated Afghan policy from Washington, he never once heard bin Laden's name. According to Olivier Roy , "the CIA was not in charge accusing Bin Laden of having been a CIA agent is nonsense of the program" to enlist Muslim volunteers to fight Soviets in Afghanistan, "but it did not oppose the scheme or worry about it negative consequences.
The US attitude had more to do with benign neglect than Machiavellian strategy.
Eagerness to claim absolute victory in Afghanistan, bureaucratic inertia , lack of concern and expertise, overconfidence in the Saudi and Pakistani security services Rahman was a co-plotter of the World Trade Center bombing. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Further information: History of Arabs in Afghanistan.
Hafez March CTC Sentinel. Archived from the original PDF on Retrieved 5 October The last great call to arms for Muslim fighters was in the s, after the Soviets invaded Afghanistan. About 20, foreign fighters traveled there, most of them from the Gulf states. The Wahhabi Mission and Saudi Arabia. London: I. In all, perhaps 35, Muslim fighters went to Afghanistan between and , while untold thousands more attended frontier schools teeming with former and future fighters. Jihad: The Trail of Political Islam. Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. At the time of the bombings, officials estimated that up to 1, foreign nationals, including citizens of Britain, the United States and France were attending madrassas.
MI5 and MI6 feared that a small number could be manipulated in those schools linked to al-Qaeda and recruited as bombers. While Gen Musharraf has swung firmly behind the West in the war on terror, he also wants to avoid alienating influential Islamic parties within his own country, some of which have links with extremists. Ten days ago, the authorities in the province of eastern Punjab said 91 students from Indonesia, the Philippines, Thailand, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Tanzania and Bangladesh would have to be expelled by December In some areas where Islamic parties have strong backing, government officials have now said they will refuse to enforce the expulsions.
Akram Khan Durrani, the NWFP chief minister, said expulsions would not be in the interests either of Pakistan or of Pakistani students studying abroad. Terms and Conditions.
Style Book. Weather Forecast. Accessibility links Skip to article Skip to navigation. Thursday 21 November Clerics defy Musharraf order to expel foreign students. The head of the Federation of Madrassas says that about 1, foreign students have left since July By Massoud Ansari in Karachi.
This is the story of Akram Mohammad Musad and his dream that became a nightmare. Akram, relocated at age 16 from Egypt to the Washington DC area by a. Entdecken Sie "The Alienation of Akram Masud an American Jihadist" von Michael J. Reagan und finden Sie Ihren Buchhändler. This is the story of Akram.