In English we run the words together, as in oneandall or oneanall ; in German the Glottal Stop separates the words and einundachtzig is pronounced? This Stop is found in many English and Scottish dialects, e. Letters Description a As a in father, ai, ay As i in fine, au As ow in fowl. In kn the k is pronounced.
English nouns have only one case with a definite form of its own, the Genitive, as in " the man's son," where the " 's " is the Genitive ending. Our pronouns, however, have a Nominative form — "I," "he," "they"; an Accusative or Dative — " me," " him," " them," and a sort of Genitive — " mine," " his," " their".
In English We know whether a noun is Nominative, Accusative, or Dative only by its position m the sentence. In "The father sees the son," the father is the doer of the action of seeing, the subject of the sentence, and is Nominative. The son is the object or extent of the action of seeing and is the object of the sentence, the Accusative. Der Vater sieht den Sohn can mean only " The father sees the son," and the order of the words cannot change the meaning, since the Nominative is marked out by der and the Accusative by den.
Thus word-order is much freer in German than in English : all the follow- ing are possible, i.
Der Vater sieht den Sohn. Den Sohn sieht der Vater. Sieht der Vater den Sohn? Sieht den Sohn der Vater? Der Vater den Sohn sieht. Den Sohn der Vater sieht. They all mean the same basically, but the emphasis is different. This distinction between Nominative and Accusative, however, applies only to the Masculine Singular, not to the Fern.
We shall set them out in that order, although grammars made in Germany use the order: Nom. Prepositions may govern any of the cases except the Nom. As in English, there is no special form in German for this case of " calling ". In Der Mann sieht den Mond, " The man sees the moon," the moon is the extent of the action of seeing.
This is the most general use, viz. In Der Mann bleibt einen Monat, " The man remains a month," a month is the extent in time of his remaining and is in the Accusative, though it is not the object of the verb. In Der Sack wiegt einen Zentner, " The bag weighs a hundredweight," the hundredweight is the extent of the weighing and is in the Accusative, but is not the object of the verb. It indicates generally the person — rarely the thing — indirectly affected by or interested in the action: In Der Vater gibt dem Sohn das Buch, " The father gives the son the book," the book is the gift, the thing given, most closely related to the action of giving, and is in the Accusative ; the son is indirectly affected by the giving and the gift, and is in the Dative case.
In English we can show this by a preposition : " The father gives the book to the son. A 11 genders Nom. Know them! Let us now set them out in two groups, Masc. Plural Nom.
All genders Nom. Article except : Nom. If you have learnt the one, you know the other. Words declined like ein, eine, ein are : kein no, not any ; mein my ; dein thy ; sein his ; ihr her ; unser our ; Euer and Ihr your ; ihr their. Feminine nouns have no case endings in the singular : N. A group of Masc. All Masc. The Dat. Examples of the above : N.
This change of vowel sound is called modification der Umlaut and frequently occurs in the plural of nouns.
Thus, der Hut adds -e and becomes die Hilte ; das Haus adds -er and becomes die Hauser. There are, however, a number of exceptions. Here are some useful rules for the Plural : i. The great majority of Fern, nouns add -n or -en.
The Nom. Plural always ends in -n. We can classify our Plurals into : I. Those which add nothing : der Giirtel — die Giirtel ; das Mddchen — die Mddchen. Those which add -er : das Glas — die Gldser. The following table shows how Masc, Fern. None modify, der Knabe — die Knaben. Plural Ending : -1 Feminine Most Fern, nouns. None modify, die Zeit — die Zeiten. Neuter See below, " Mixed Declension. Plural Ending : None Those ending in -el, -er, -en.
Most do not modify ; a few do. Note : der Kase — die Kase. Only two ; both modify. Those ending in -el, -er, -en, -chen, and -lein, and those with prefix Ge- ending in -e. Only one modifies : das Kloster — die Kloster convent. Those ending in -ig, -ing, -ling.
None modify. Plural Ending : -1 Some 30 common monosyllables. Also a few in -nis and -sal ; they do not modify : die Bedrangnis — die Bedrang- nisse ; die Triib- sal — die Triib- sale.
It is twenty to ten. This change of vowel sound is called modification der Umlaut and frequently occurs in the plural of nouns. I love her books, and this one is no exception. Der Dieb blieb die ganze Nackt unter dem Bette, the thief remained the whole night under the bed. If the Direct Speech is in a Past Tense, the Indirect uses the Perfect or Pluperfect Subjunctive : " Ich war krank " or " Ich bin krank gewesen " or " Ich war krank gewesen ' ' all become when re- ported : Er sagte, er sei ware krank gewesen. Here are some examples of Adverbs compared : Positive Comparative Rel.
A small number of monosyllables. Also those ending in -nis and -sal: das Zeugnis — die Zeugnisse ; das Schicksal — die Schicksale. Plural Some 11 common None. Ending : -er Most monosyllables and all Neuters in -turn. All modify. The following have lost their -e and are declined like Filrst : der Bar bear ; der Christ Christian ; der Graf count ; der Mensch human being ; der Narr fool ; der Held hero ; der Herr, which makes die Herren in the plural.
Nouns of foreign origin accented on the last syllable also belong to Class I : der Student — die Studenten ; der Philosoph — die Philosophen, and are declined like Knabe. Masculines in Class II mostly do not modify ; the following do modify : der Acker field ; der Bruder brother ; der Garten garden ; der Graben ditch ; der Hammer hammer ; der Hafen harbour ; der Handel trade ; der Mangel lack ; der Nagel nail ; der Of en stove ; der Sattel saddle ; der Schnabel beak ; der Schwager brother-in-law : der Vater father : der Vogel bird.
A number of these end in -eur : der Redakteur editor — die Redakteure. Neuter Monosyllables in Class IV which add -er and modify are : das A mt office ; das Bad bath ; das Band ribbon ; das Blait leaf, page ; das Buck book ; das Dach roof ; das Dorf village ; das Fass vat ; das Grab grave ; das Gras grass ; das Gut estate, commodity ; das Haupt head ; das Holz wood ; das Horn horn ; das Huhn hen ; das Kalb calf ; das Lamm lamb ; das Land land ; das Loch hole ; das Mahl repast ; das Rod wheel ; das Schloss castle, lock ; das Tuch cloth ; das Volk people.
Also most loan words in -or : der Doktor — des Doktors — die Doktoren. The following have two plurals with different meanings : Das Band has die Bander ribbons and die Bande chains.
Die Bank has die Bdnke benches and die Banken banks for money. Das Ding has die Dinge things and die Dinger wretched things or people. Das Gesicht has die Gesichte apparitions and die Gesichter faces.